COVID-19 vaccine for use approved by Russian President Vladimir Putin. It was developed by the Moscow-based Gamaleya Institute. However, this is only one of the hundreds of world-famous Russian discoveries that serve the world. Not only Russian scientists join the ranks of people who have made world-famous inventions, but also artists, writers, poets, composers, dancers, and actors occupy a significant place in the creation of world cultural heritage. The nature of Russia, as well as its people and historical monuments, is a unique phenomenon that delights with its originality and diversity. This article will tell you the facts about the most interesting people, places and inventions that have become an integral part of an amazing country – Russia.
Famous Russian Scientists and their Discoveries
Russia is the native country of many renowned scientists that made discoveries in various fields (from physics and chemistry to ophthalmology). Moreover, they found practical application of their theories, and people around the world employ these inventions in everyday use. To tell about every wonderful scientist the whole book is needed. That is why we suggest you the list of 10 the most famous Russian scientists.
- Mikhail Lomonosov is regarded as the first to discover the law of mass conservation (1760) and to establish mechanistic caloric theory and the chemistry of minerals and glass. Lomonosov’s discoveries in chemistry, physics, and astronomy were decades ahead of the work of Western European scientists. He developed atomic and molecular ideas about the structure of matter, expressed the principle of conservation of matter and motion, laid the foundations of physical chemistry, and studied atmospheric electricity and gravity. He put forward the doctrine of light, created a number of optical devices, discovered the atmosphere on the planet Venus, and explained the origin of many minerals. His works in the field of history are known. Lomonosov is the founder of Russia’s first classical university – Moscow State University (1755). It should be pointed that Lomonosov was a close friend of Dmitry Vinogradov – creator of Russian porcelain.
- Nikolay Lobachevsky is the founder of hyperbolic geometry (1829) which was later recognized as a valid alternative to Euclidean geometry.
- Aleksander Stoletov is the Russian physicist who worked in electrical engineering, optics, and molecular physics. This amazing person designed and constructed the first photoelectric element, a device which transforms the energy of photons into electricity.
- Dmitri Mendeleev formulated the Periodic Law and created his own version of the periodic table of elements (1869). The system that he devised made it possible to correct the properties of some elements that had already been discovered and to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered. His discovery is viewed as the most significant contribution to materials chemistry.
- Alexander Popov was one of the first to find practical applications of electromagnetic waves, particularly in wireless communication. He designed and built a state-of-the-art radio receiver that was unique for its time (1895).
- Nikolay Pirogov is considered the founder of field surgery, regional anatomy and the founder of the Russian school of anesthesia. Surgery became a science thanks to him.
- Ivan Pavlov is the founder of physiology of higher nervous activity. He is the first Russian Nobel Prize winner (1904). He received awards for physiology of digestion.
- Vladimir Zworykin is an engineer and inventor. Born and educated in Russia. One the founding fathers and pioneers of television. He invented the cathode ray tube (1929), iconoscope (1931), electrooptical television system (1933) and laid the basis for color television (1940s).
- Pavel Cherenkov is the author of several groundbreaking discoveries in physical optics, nuclear and high-energy physics. He was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958.
- Sergey Korolev was a leading Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer and is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics. Among his major achievements are the first successful launch of an orbiting satellite (1957) and the first manned space flight of Yuri Gagarin (1961).
Cultural heritage of Russia
Russian culture is a major part of the Russian intangible heritage. It combines the traditions of numerous folks of Russia, reflects historical events, geographical features, and the influence of other cultures and worldviews. Some elements of Russian culture have been preserved since pagan times. For example, genres of oral folk art or details of traditional embroidery. The development of Russian culture was strongly influenced by the geographical position between East and West. The diverse landscape is shown directly or indirectly in both artistic and literary works. After all, artists and writers sought to demonstrate the reality that changed depending on the region. Thanks to the vast territory and the change of several civilizations, Russia has become a homeland for different nationalities. Their identity was merged into the current way of life, overgrown with new elements, transformed. All this has affected the development of cultural life and historical heritage.
The names of Russian cultural figures are known all over the world: Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky, Glinka, Pushkin, Akhmatova, Vasnetsov, Perov, and many others. Works of Russian writers have been translated into many languages. Performances of “Swan lake” or “The Nutcracker” are successfully held on the stages of different theaters. Let’s look at some of the components of Russian culture.
- Painting. For a long time, the Russian school of painting was limited to painting icons and decorating products in the lubok style.
Each of the famous masters had their own style. For example, the icons of Andrey Rublev were very different from the icons created by Theophanes the Greek. The Eastern Orthodox Church has had a significant impact on the development of Russian culture, and images of beautiful churches with Golden domes still remain one of the favorite plots of artists.
During the reign of Peter I, Western techniques of performance penetrated into Russia. They began to create landscapes, portraits, and still lifes. By the beginning of the XX century, landscapes conveyed not only the beauty of nature, but also the state of the author’s soul. Vasily Perov made a huge contribution to the history of painting and created many paintings that reflect the life of the Russian people.
Vasnetsov is the founder of the “Neo-Russian style”, transformed from the historical genre and romantic trends associated with folklore and symbolism.
At the beginning of the XX century, the trends of modernism and the avant-garde flourished. Kazimir Malevich, working in the avant-garde technique, created a new direction — Suprematism. This genre is well reflected in his painting “Black square”.
- Literature. An important part of Russian culture is the country’s literary heritage. Russian folk characters surprise and charm with their stories: Baba Yaga, who lives in a hut on chicken’s legs, Zmey Gorynych (Russian’s version of dragon), Koschei the Deathless and many others. The works of Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Griboyedov, Lermontov, and Pushkin have been translated into various languages. Pushkin is considered the “sun of Russian poetry”, and his fairy tales and poems are known and loved since childhood.
- The silver age of Russian poetry has given mankind beautiful poets: Anna Akhmatova, Sergey Yesenin, Marina Tsvetaeva, Alexander Blok, Valery Bryusov and others. The Soviet era also contributed: the names of Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Vladimir Vysotsky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko are known in different parts of the world. Characteristic features of Russian literature: a deep study of the emotional experiences of the characters, a picturesque description of natural landscapes, the study of the inner world of man.
- Theater. Russian ballet is known all over the world — a unique school of dance art that has become the country’s hallmark. No wonder some travelers ask to include a visit to the ballet in the program of tours in Russia. But few people know that the history of Russian theater originates in folk festivals and performances on squares. Buffoons are the founders of theatrical culture in Russia.
- Music. The music of Russia was transformed from simple folk songs to voluminous symphonic compositions. Works by the great Russian composers Glinka, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov were performed in the world’s largest theaters. It is difficult to find a person who does not recognize the first notes of a composition from the ballets “The Nutcracker” or “Swan lake” by Tchaikovsky. Musical works of Russian classics combine volume, artistic depth, lightness, and dramatic images. Perhaps that is why they have won love and recognition all over the world.
Russia occupies about 1/3 of the territory of the Eurasian continent, where about 23% of the country’s area is located in Eastern Europe and about 76% of the area in the Northern part of Asia. Due to the vast territories and great distance from the sea in some places, the climate of Russia is continental, which is characterized by all four seasons of the year with pronounced summer and winter. The nature of Russia is diverse and has its own characteristics in different parts of the country. The territory of Russia consists of different natural zones: Arctic deserts, tundra, taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forests, steppes, semi-deserts and deserts. Along with the climatic conditions, this gives a great variety in the nature of Russia for the world of plants and animals.
The Curonian spit is a long narrow strip of land with a unique landscape, flora and fauna. There are about 600 species of plants and 296 species of animals, and 150 species of birds pass through the migration path. For its stunning nature, the Curonian spit is included in the UNESCO world heritage list.
Ruskeala is a village with a unique nature and a glorious history, near which the mountain park of the same name is located. It includes the Marble canyon and Ruskeala sinkhole. The canyon is surrounded by steep cliffs, caves and tunnels. It is filled with clean ground water, and therefore completely transparent. And Ruskeala sinkhole is a unique place: the ice never melts here.
Elton is a salt lake near the border with Kazakhstan. It is the largest mineral lake in Europe by area and one of the most mineralized in the world. The golden-pink lake is bordered by snow-white crystals, and around it-the stunning beauty of chamomile steppes.
Bolshoy Tkhach is a mountain with a height of 2368 m in the Western Caucasus, on the watershed of the Malaya Laba and Belaya rivers. It is part of the Natural Park of the same name, which is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. In translation from the Adygean “Tkhach” means “God”.
Elbrus is the largest mountain in Russia and Europe. 5,642 meters above sea level! Elbrus is sung by poets and celebrated by mountaineers.
Weathering pillars or Mansi blocks are mountain remnants with a height of 30 to 42 meters, which were formed due to the blowing of mountain peaks by strong winds. They are located on the Manpupuner plateau, on the territory of the Pechora-Ilych nature reserve. Weathering pillars are considered one of the seven wonders of Russia and one of the most mysterious places in the world.
The Taganay National Park covers the territory from the ridges of the Southern Urals to the forest-steppes. The name translates from Bashkir as “stand for the moon”. Mountain tundra, relict forests and moss swamps are preserved there, untouched by the hand of man.
Lena pillars — a forty-kilometer series of rocks on the banks of the Lena river. The height of some rock formations reaches 220 meters, the age is about 400 thousand years. This is also the name of the local Nature Park. Thousands of tourists from all over the world come here for rafting along the picturesque rocks and extraordinary nature. You can see not only this natural wonder, but also take a walk through Tukulan, where scientists have discovered the remains of a mammoth, an ancient bison and a rhinoceros.
Among the Siberian hills and ancient forests, between Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude the most famous Russian lake lies. Baikal is unique — it is the deepest lake on the planet and the cleanest in the country. Here you can enjoy a huge number of endemics and dizzying landscapes. Baikal is also a treasure trove of minerals, such as jade. These whisky jade stones are an exclusive and stylish gift that preserves the long history of this amazing natural place.
The Charsky desert is a giant dune and basin that stretches for 50 square kilometers in the foothills of the Kodar range. One of the seven wonders of Transbaikalia. The sandy massif in the middle of leafy taiga and swamps looks like an illusion, but it is more than real. Even more striking is the fact that the sands are mobile. They are gradually moving from the southwest to the northeast.
The valley of geysers is one of the world’s largest fields with underground hot springs. 90 geysers and 110 thermal springs on four square kilometers where hot fountains soar up. The amazing beauty of the sight!
Russia is a treasure chest that can be sorted endlessly. This is a truly unique country that, along with a highly developed modern culture, carefully preserves the traditions of its nation, which are deeply rooted not only in the Eastern Orthodox Church, but even in paganism. The Russians still celebrate pagan holidays, believe in many of the popular superstitions and legends. Christianity gave Russians such wonderful holidays as Easter and Christmas, and paganism-Maslenitsa and Ivan Kupala. Subscribe to our social networks in order not to miss exciting new articles about the cultural components of Russia.