The history and rules of Chess.

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Check,mate! In this article, we’d like to introduce you to chess, the most popular and intelligent game in the world. Regardless of your interests, you can develop a love of chess at any age. A rock guitarist can play online chess in the evening before going to bed, as well as a professional chess player can listen to heavy music. Interest in this game is fueled by many factors.

Apart from strengthening one’s personality, it develops ones ability to think logically and plan actions as well as cultivating concentration and perseverance. Often, chess is used for psychological and educational research because of the way many human characteristics are revealed during the game. In addition to this, they were used for identifying the capabilities of computers that were trying to solve problems of the enumeration type, where from possible elements of a solution the best option was chosen.

This organized sport features a chess academy, tournaments, leagues, and congresses, as well as a hierarchy of titles. Professional sports have spawned professional athletes, coaches, journalists, and other professionals who depend on the army of true fans. The Chess Olympiad is a team competition that takes place every two years even though chess is not part of the Olympic Games.

The game is known by several names in different countries: chess in England, el axedres in Spain, Schach in Germany, echecs in France. Shah Mat is the Persian term for a defeated ruler and is the Russian equivalent.

History

Historians of the game strive to establish where, how and why they originated, how they spread throughout the world through the centuries and countries, from people to people, from civilization to civilization. How the rules of the game changed over time, how its theory developed, how and why various schools of chess arose. Archaeological finds indicate that games with chips on the board were known in ancient times – in Assyria, Mesopotamia and Egypt as early as the 3rd-4th millennia BC.

Most historians agree that chess originated in India, although there are other hypotheses about its origin associated with China and Mesopotamia. Lack of factual data and archaeological material creates the basis for the most fantastic hypotheses, such as, for example, that aliens brought chess to earth.

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Around the same VII century. chess penetrated from India to Persia, where it got the name “chatrang”, which is a derivative of chaturanga. Around the same time as in Persia, chess penetrated into Central Asia. During archaeological excavations in Afrosiab (Samarkand), ivory figurines dating from the 7th – 8th centuries were found. These are the most ancient chess pieces. They are pictorial, as they depict the shah in miniature, as well as horse and foot soldiers.

After the Arabs conquered Persia, the Islamic world became acquainted with chess. The Arabs named them shatranj.

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In the VIII-IX centuries. in the Arab Caliphate, shatranj was most widespread. True, Islam prohibits the depiction of people and animals. To avoid conflict with religion, chess pieces, which at first had the appearance of miniature sculptures, began to be given an abstract form. Such figurines were easy to make (they were made from baked clay) and, most importantly, cheap, which contributed to the spread of the game among the common people.

Western Europe borrowed shatranj chess from the Arabs, primarily through the Iberian Peninsula, but possibly also through Aquitaine and Provence (the southern coast of France), and also through the south of the Apennine Peninsula. The Vikings contributed to the spread of the game in the British Isles and Scandinavia.

The first mention of chess in Western Europe dates back to the very beginning of the 11th century, but the game could have already been known one, or even two centuries earlier.

In the XI-XII centuries. chess was considered one of the most widespread entertainments of the feudal nobility; it was included in the program of knightly education. Table games that have existed in Western Europe since the days of ancient Rome were gambling for money, so chess also became a betting game. It is not surprising that the Roman Catholic Church tried to ban them, but all these prohibitions were unsuccessful and later, by 1400, were canceled.

Since the end of the 16th century, the fame of the strongest chess players has passed to the Italian masters, and for the first time the concept of the Italian school is associated with their work. Their games and opening analyzes, presented in Polerio’s manuscript, books by Salvio, Carrera and Greco, show a pronounced offensive strategy of the game – the desire to sacrifice material in order to gain time to mobilize forces, open lines and organize an attack on the enemy king.

It was Andersen who won the first international tournament that took place in 1851 in London.He also won the second international tournament in London in 1862. The victory in the third international tournament, held in Paris in 1867, was won by Kolis. The first international tournament in Germany took place in 1870, where Andersen won again.

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The international chess tournament was first held in Germany in 1870. Andersen won again. In the future, international tournaments began to be held regularly.

Steinitz played Zukertort in the United States for the first time in 1886, and it was the first official World Chess Championship match. In 1924 The International Chess Federation (FIDE) is established with Steinitz becoming the first world champion after winning this match.

She took over the organization of competitions for the title of the strongest chess player in the world. The match-tournament held in 1948 was won by the representative of the Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik (1911-1995). Since 1927, FIDE began to hold competitions for the world championship among women. Czech Vera Menchik became the first world champion. She won six more similar tournaments.

On the territory of Russia, chess in the form of a shatranj was brought from the East by trade routes, most likely through Khorezm and Khazaria. Although there are archaeological finds dating back to the 11th century, the earliest written records of them date to the 13th century.

Russian tsars – Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, Alexei Mikhailovich, Peter I devoted their time to the game of chess. Chess was played at the Peter’s assemblies.

In the XIX century In Russia, however, chess was played for the most part by noblemen and highly intelligent strata of society. The Decembrists, members of the circle of T. Granovsky paid attention to her. Chess was the favorite leisure of A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, I. Turgenev, E. Chernyshevsky, L. Tolstoy.

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The first international competition in Russia was the St. Petersburg match-tournament of the world’s It was a more general and abbreviated history of chess.

If you are interested, let’s plunge into the history of the most logical and intellectual game in more detail. If you do not want to read for a long time, then the knowledge from the previous paragraph will be enough for you.

History in details

Indian roots

A certain Brahmin is credited with creating chess according to ancient legends. In return for his work, he requested a small reward: he would receive as many wheat grains as there are on the chessboard, assuming that one grain was placed on the first cell, two grains on the second, four grains on the third, etc. It turned out that this amount of grain does not exist on our planet (it will fill a storage of 180 km3 with 264 x 1 * 1.845 * 1019 grains). In any case, India is the homeland of chess in one way or another, whether it was or not.

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The first game similar to chess we know of appeared in the north-west of India as early as the 6th century – chaturanga. Even though it looked like chess, it differed significantly from modern chess in two fundamental ways: it involved four players instead of two (the players played a pair against a pair, and they moved based on the results of throwing dice). There were four pieces in each player’s hand (chariot, knight, bishop, and king) as well as four pawns. Chess’ knight and king walked as our rooks and bishops do today, but the chariot and bishop were far weaker. The queen did not exist. Defeating every opponent army was crucial in winning the game.

Arab conversions

A similar form of chaturanga was borrowed by the Arabs during the VIth or VIIth century. A new variation of the chaturanga was introduced in the Arab East: as opposed to one player receiving two sets of pieces, the player receiving one set of pieces was transformed into a queen (moved diagonally one square). The bones were refused, and they began to walk strictly one by one. In the first part, victory wasn’t achieved by the destruction of all pieces, but by the mate or a stalemate, and the other two choices were forced, since checkmate was possible only with weak pieces, so it was not always happening. From the Arab term shatranj, from the Persian term “shatrang”, this game was called shatranj. After the Shatterans got to Tajikistan, they called the Sharanj “chess” (which translates to “the ruler is defeated”). Approximately 550 years ago, shatraja was first mentioned. It appears in the Persian manuscript “Karnamuk” in 600, which is the first literary reference to shatranj. Caliph Al-Mamun hosted a tournament in Khorosan in 819 at which the strongest players of the day, including Jabir al-Kufi, Abyljafar Ansari, and Zairab Katan competed. Chess was written by Al-Alli in 847, when he published the first chess book.

Chess in Russia

Approximately around 820, chess (or more precisely the Arabic shatranj, which was renamed “chess” in Central Asia and adopted in Russian) made its way to Russia There has been speculation that this product originated either from central Asia via Khorezm or directly from Persia via the Caucasus.Both Arabic and Central Asian characters have consonant or similar names in Russian. In either case, the Russian name for the game comes from the Tajiks or Uzbeks. In the late 19th century, the old Russian chess gradually became modernized with the rule changes introduced by Europeans.

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Chess comes to Europe

While the Arab conquest of Spain took place in the 8th-9th centuries, the shatranj invaded Spain, followed by Portugal, Italy, and France over the following decades. After quickly gaining popularity in Europe, the game was known throughout Europe and Scandinavia during the 11th century. Shatranj was modernized by European masters, who eventually transformed it into modern chess. Chess has, in general, taken on a more modern appearance by the 15th century, although different countries adopted their own peculiarities, sometimes quite bizarre, due to inconsistencies in the rules due to the inconsistency of the changes. In Italy, for instance, until the nineteenth century, a pawn that arrived at the last position must be changed into pieces that had as of now been taken out from the board. Simultaneously, it was not illegal to move a pawn to the last position without even a trace of such pieces; such a pawn stayed a pawn and transformed into the principal piece caught by the adversary exactly when the rival took it. In a similar spot, castling was permitted in case there was a piece between the rook and the lord and when the ruler passed a wrecked square.

Chess grew in popularity across Europe, as well as works telling about the game, including Ezra’s chess sonnet. In 1160, the first chess poem appeared. By 1283, Alphonse X the Wise was distributing the main chess book in Europe. This book is important from an historic perspective, as it depicts both new European chess as well as a hopeless shatranj.

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Church against chess

Christian Churches have viewed chess negatively since chess was created. Gambling and drinking were associated with chess. A number of Christian groups participated in this activity. Cardinal Damiani banned the clergy from enjoying chess during the Catholic Reformation of 1161. Bernard, founder of the Knights Templar, warned against chess in his speech of 1128.This was also indicated in Pope Alexander II’s letter to Pope Alexander. Hades Sully, a French bishop, banned in 1208 that patrons “touch and play chess at home.” Jan Hus, the reformist leader of the Protestant Church, opposes chess, as well. Casimir II of Poland, Louis IX of France (Saint Louis), and Edward IV of England were banned from playing chess due to church rejection. Due to the excommunication threat of the Church, chess was also forbidden in Russia under the threat of excommunication in the book of pilots in 1262, and was further confirmed by the Stoglav Cathedral in 1551.

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Although there were church prohibitions against chess, both in Europe and in Russia, the game spread widely, and among the clergy, the game was widely celebrated (if not more so than among other classes). 1393 marks the year when the Regensburg Cathedral officially said no to chess. At least from the 17th to 18th centuries, the church ban on chess did not work in Russia, but no information is available about when it was officially lifted. Playing chess was Ivan the Terrible’s favorite pastime. It was common for diplomats to be able to play chess under Alexei Mikhailovich. It has been discovered that chess is a preferred game for Russian envoys in Europe, as documented in documents of that time. Sofia particularly liked to play chess. Chess was an essential part of Peter I’s assemblies.

Chess theory

A systematic chess theory was developed in the 15th-16th centuries as a result of the development of chess rules. The first complete chess textbook, published in 1561 by Rui Lopez, included separate chapters on the opening, middlegame, and endgame – the three stages into which the game can be divided. In his famous attack on gambits, he described how the development of a game can be accelerated by sacrificing material.

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A key figure in chess theory development in the 18th century, Philidor made a great contribution to the field. Unlike his predecessors, the Italian masters and the other masters of his time, he believed that the best strategy was to attack the opponent’s king with all available means, and to rely on pawns only as a supplement to such an attack. Positional style of play was developed by Philip. He thought that players shouldn’t launch reckless attacks, but build a strong, stable position, precisely calculate their blows, and exploit the weaknesses in their opponents’ positions. In order to achieve a winning endgame, simplifications and exchanges can be implemented. To Filidor, chess positions are determined by the arrangement of pawns. Pawns are considered to be the very soul of the game, and their good or bad disposition determines victory or defeat. As a consequence of his ideas, the chess theory of the next century was founded on many pillars, including tactics for moving pawns forward, the importance of pawn centers, and the analysis of the center struggle. Phillipidor’s “Analysis of the Chess Game” went through 42 editions in the 18th century. Reprinted several times thereafter, it became a classic.

How to play chess

Chess rules cannot cover all potential situations that could arise during a game, nor are they sufficient to deal with all organizational issues. Decisions should be made based on similar situations addressed in the Rules in those instances that are not entirely covered by an article of the Rules.

Players alternate moving their pieces on a square board called a chess board. Two partners play chess by moving pieces alternately on a square board known as a “chess board”. The partner with the white pieces starts the game.

In each game, the goal is to attack the partner’s king in a manner that prevents him from interrupting the next move in order to “capture” the king. If one partner succeeds in checkmating his opponent’s king, the other game ends in a draw. If neither partner succeeds in checkingmate, the game ends in a draw.

A game board consists of 64 square cells (8×8) numbered horizontally in Latin letters from left to right and vertically from 1 to 8. Each field can be numbered vertically by a number from 1 to 8. When vertically and horizontally adjacent fields are dark and light (black and white) in color, they are separated by different colors. The board is positioned between players so that the nearest corner square to the right of the players is white.

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A row of squares arranged vertically is called a “vertical” row, a row arranged horizontally is called a “contour” row, and a curved line extending between two squares is called a “diagonal”.

Every player begins with 16 pieces (one white, one black). During the game, the pieces move on the board, attack the pieces on the opposite side, take them and remove them from the board. The only piece that always remains on the board is the king.

Chess figures

These figures are as follows:

  • One king.
  • One queen (colloquially a queen, although the real meaning of the word is minister).
  • Two elephants (in common parlance – officers).
  • Two horses.
  • Two boats (in common parlance – tours or towers).
  • Eight pawns.

At the beginning of the game, the pieces are placed in fixed positions, occupying exactly two ranks (1 and 2 are white, 7 and 8 are black). The order of the initial placement of pieces on ranks 1 and 8 (from a to h): rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, rook. Ranks 2 and 7 take pawns.

Players take alternate turns. You can only move one piece at a time. White goes first. Not a single piece, except a knight, can jump over its own or other’s pieces; the horse can do it. To take on this field, you cannot move a piece into a square occupied by another of the same color.

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The pieces move as follows:

– the queen, rook, or bishop cannot move across another piece’s squares. They can move any square along the vertical, horizontal, or diagonal in which they stand;

– In addition to moving vertically or horizontally, the rook can also move diagonally to any square on which it stands;

-while the bishop can move anywhere along the diagonal on which he stands;

– the knight moves in the shape of the letter “L”: 1 cell horizontally and 2 vertically, or, conversely, 1 cell vertically and 2 horizontally;

– the pawn moves forward to a free square located directly in front of it on the same file, or

a) When both of these squares are free, a pawn can advance two squares on one file;

b) The move is made to the square occupied by the enemy piece, which is on the adjacent diagonal, capturing the piece simultaneously;

c) An attacking pawn can take a pawn which has crossed two squares at once, as if it was just one square. The attacking pawn can capture a pawn that is crossed by another pawn of the opponent. In an en route capture, the target can only be discovered on the following move;

d) at the end of a move, a pawn must be replaced by a queen, rook, bishop, or knight in the player’s color when it reaches the farthest rank from its original position, where it was originally positioned. Pieces that have already been removed from the board are not restricted to the player’s choice. Promoting a pawn means exchanging it for another piece, and the new piece takes immediate action upon its promotion;

– the king can move in two different ways:

a) move to any adjacent square that is not attacked by one or more of the opponent’s pieces. The opponent’s pieces are considered to attack the square, even when they are unable to move.

b) “castling”. The movement along the extreme horizontal of the king and one of the rooks of the same colour constitutes one move of the king and is carried out as follows: after advancing two squares to the rook, the king is moved across the rook to the square it just crossed; the rook then advances two squares to the square the king just crossed.

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Castling becomes impossible:

  1. a) if the king has already moved;
  2. b) with the rook, if it has already moved.

Castling is temporarily impossible:

  1. a) if the square on which the king stands, which he must cross, or which he must occupy, is attacked by one of the opponent’s pieces;
  2. b) if between the king and the rook, with which the castling is to be made, there is some piece that interferes with the castling.

If a king is “in check,” then at least one of his opponent’s pieces has attacked him, even when such pieces cannot move themselves. The announcement of the shah is optional, and no piece can move its king if it knows it is in check.

A watch with two dials connected to each other so that only one of them can work at a time. According to the Laws of Chess, “the clock” refers to one of the two dials that indicate the time. The term “flag falling” alludes to the expiration of the time allotted to think about moves.

If you use a chess clock, you must make the minimum number of moves within a set amount of time, or if you use an electronic clock, you may add additional time to each move. All this must be determined in advance.

Each dial has a “flag”. Requirements must be checked immediately after the flag is dropped.

A timer starts for the player who has white pieces at the time set for the start of the game. In the event that neither player is present at the beginning, the clock of the player playing white runs.

The player must stop his clock and start the clock of his partner in order to complete his turn. It is imperative that a player is able to stop the clock at any time. In the case of a game-ending turn, the turn is considered complete once these two requirements have been met. The time allotted for a player to make a move is the time from the moment the partner made a move and the clock was switched.

The player must switch his clock with the same hand with which he made the move.

It is forbidden to hold your finger on or over the watch button.

If the player is unable to use the watch, he may propose an assistant for this operation, who must be approved by the arbiter. As soon as both flags have fallen, the clock must be adjusted by the arbiter. If it is impossible to establish which flag fell first, the game continues.

International Chess Federation

FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Checs , French Fédération Internationale des Checs ), founded in 1924, is the main organization for organizing international chess competitions. Many countries also have organized national chess players. National Federations may request clarifications on all laws of chess from FIDE.

While FIDE is part of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), chess as such has never been an Olympic sport. For those who are interested in chess, a separate Chess Olympiad takes place every two years. The 2008 Olympics took place in Dresden, Germany. Armenia and Georgia won gold medals for men and women, respectively.

A number of grandmasters disagreed with FIDE’s policy towards how grandmasters are selected, so the PCA organized its own world chess championship in 1993. In 1977, Garry Kasparov and Nigel Short founded the PCA. It existed until 1996, when it ceased to exist due to lack of sponsorship, after which the PCA world champions were referred to as “classical chess champions”.

Conclusion

We hope you found it interesting. Chess promotes the development of analytical thinking, logical thinking, abstract thinking, memory, concentration, imagination and counting. They have educational implications: patience, patience, patience, determination, patience, wit, developing and improving a sense of responsibility. Overcome difficulties, plan actions, assess situations, make decisions and develop the ability to weaken personality and will (will to win).

Once you start playing, you cannot stop.

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